Picture frames and gilded objects are often more complex than they first appear to be and can be made up from a wide variety of materials. In the UK, the wooden substrate of picture and mirror frames is often a species of pine but oak, lime and a spectrum of other hard and softwoods are also found.
Generally, ornament in relief is made from either:
- Carved wood
- A solid moulding material that has been cast in moulds while still in a